Therapeutic Concepts

Different psychological theories correlate and hold similar evidence, and sometimes missing pieces of the puzzles from those around them. My practice is informed by the clinical evidence from this rich 'ecosystem of ideas' arising from multiple corresponding therapeutic traditions. I integrate theoretical orientations based on self research and practice-based, phenomenological research, and informed by client preferences and client feedback. I personalise the therapy to ensure the best possible therapy experience to enhance the mental health and personal development of every individual therapy client.

Perhaps you may find something inspiring here; concepts are loosely categorised according to the various schools of therapy. Please click on the titles to 'have a nose' through the lists and descriptions. I hope that you discover, or are reminded of, something useful to you here.


Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT):

A goal-oriented therapeutic approach that focuses on identifying and changing unhelpful thought patterns and behaviours to promote positive mental health.

Automatic Thoughts:

Immediate, unfiltered thoughts that spontaneously arise in response to situations. Exploring automatic thoughts helps us to understand their impact on how you feel and how you act and react to things in the world.


Cognitive defusion means to create distance from distressing thoughts, reducing their impact so you can become the more objective witness to your internal experiences. This can be understood as a process of "separating out" from your thoughts and feelings, so you can respond from a compassionate and non-judgemental stance, instead of staying reactively engaged.

Cognitive Restructuring:

The process of challenging and changing irrational or negative thought patterns. Applying compassion helps to transform thoughts into more balanced and supportive perspectives, increasing psychological flexibility and growth.

Thought Records:

A tool to track and analyse thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Thought records help identify and challenge negative patterns. You simply use a prepared worksheet template, or create a table in your notebook, with the days of the week and hours of the day and note your mood and feelings, what you were doing and what you were thinking. This promotes self-monitoring and positive changes in how you think, feel and behave. 

Cognitive Distortions:

Biased and irrational thought patterns that contribute to negative emotions. Identifying cognitive distortions can promote more balanced and realistic thinking.


The practice of observing and recording one's thoughts, emotions, and behaviours. Self-monitoring can enhance self-awareness and identify patterns.

Behavioural Experiments:

Systematic tests of the accuracy of negative thoughts or beliefs through planned activities. Behavioural experiments may be used to challenge and modify cognitive patterns.

Uncovering Core Beliefs:

Focuses on identifying deep-seated beliefs that shape your perceptions and behaviours. Uncovers these core beliefs in a gentle way can promote insight and healing.

Positive Affirmations:

The considerate use of meaningful and realistic positive affirmations can challenge negative thinking and build self-confidence. Affirmations are tools for reshaping beliefs and attitudes and can facilitate an optimistic and empowered approach to life.


Emotions are a normal part of life and growth. Recognising emotions, such as fear and shame, as a natural part of life encourages individuals to accept the feelings rather than fighting hard to resist the feelings and becoming stuck and frozen. Normalisation encourages a mindset of acceptance and facing the challenges of life even when strong emotions are present.

Turning Pain into Power:

Pain can be transformed into opportunities for growth and personal development. Viewing difficulties as stepping stones rather than obstacles encourages resilience and a proactive approach to life's inevitable hardships. 

Embracing the Unknown:

Embracing the unknown and stepping outside of comfort zones. By cultivating a willingness to explore the unknown, individuals can expand their horizons, discover new possibilities, and overcome the limitations of fear.

Emotional Needs:

Recognises a set of innate emotional needs that are essential for mental well-being. Examples of needs are: security, attention, connection, autonomy, and achievement. Ensuring these needs are met is fundamental for psychological health.

The REM State:

Highlights the importance of the REM (Rapid Eye Movement) state in the sleep cycle for processing emotions and maintaining mental health. Good quality sleep is essential to emotional regulation and resilience.

Pattern Matching:

Describes the brain's natural ability to match current experiences with past patterns stored in memory. Pattern matching is a key factor in emotional responses and behaviour, influencing how individuals interpret and respond to the world.

The Expectation Principle:

Asserts that mental health is influenced by the match between individuals' innate needs and their environment. It is important to set realistic expectations from your environment and align your expectations with your emotional needs.

The Emotional Learning System:

Describes how the brain's emotional learning system adapts based on experiences. We learn from emotional experiences and adapt our responses to future situations, shaping their emotional well-being.

The REMM State:

Introduces the REMM (Rapid Eye Movement and Metaphor) state as a therapeutic tool. It is possible to use guided metaphorical storytelling to access the REMM state, facilitating emotional processing and positive change.

Guided Imagery:

Incorporates guided imagery as a technique to evoke emotional responses and promote positive mental states. Using guided imagery may help you to access resources and create positive mental associations.

Goal Setting:

Advocates for goal setting as a means of meeting emotional needs and promoting a sense of purpose. To improve a sense of motivation, it may be important to set achievable goals aligned with innate emotional needs for fulfillment.

The Rewind Technique:

Introduces the Rewind Technique as an intervention for treating trauma and phobias. This fast and effective method can help individuals reprocess traumatic memories and alleviate emotional distress.


Encourages meta-reflection, the ability to step back and reflect on one's thoughts and emotions. 

Pattern Interrupt:

Suggests the use of pattern interrupts to break unhelpful behavioural patterns. Interrupting negative patterns can facilitate positive change and promote emotional well-being.

The Affect Bridge Technique:

The Affect Bridge Technique is a therapeutic method. This technique is used to guide individuals from negative emotional states to positive ones.

The RIGAAR Model:

Introduces the RIGAAR model, which stands for Rapport, Information Gathering, Goal Setting, Agreeing on a Strategy, Action, and Review. This model may be used to guide therapeutic interventions and support positive change.

The Pleasure-Pain Principle:

Recognizes the Pleasure-Pain Principle as a motivator for human behaviour. Individuals are driven to seek pleasure and avoid pain, influencing their emotional responses and decision-making.

The Concept of Paradoxical Therapy:

Introduces paradoxical therapy as an approach to change through humor, surprise, and counterintuitive strategies. Paradoxical interventions may disrupt unhelpful patterns and promote positive outcomes.

Future-Focused Perspective:

Creating a desirable future rather than dwelling excessively on past problems i.e. a forward-looking mindset.


Instead of focusing solely on problems, exploring exceptions or times when the issue was less prominent, uncovering insights for change.

Coping Questions:

Coping questions may be used to explore how you manage difficulties, helping you to recognise and build upon existing coping strategies.

Scaling Questions:

Scaling questions may assist you to rate  your current situation on a scale, providing a tangible way to measure progress and set realistic goals.

Acknowledging Change:

Acknowledging even subtle changes, reinforcing the idea that progress, no matter how small, is a step in the right direction.

Development of Critical Thinking:

Critical thinking skills may be developed through challenging assumptions, exploring alternatives, and practising intellectual curiosity.


The act of choosing simplicity and independence, can support one to prioritise your own well-being above societal conventions and material pursuits.

Dichotomy of Control:

Distinguishing between what you can control (your thoughts and actions) and what you cannot (external events), to find tranquility.

Golden Mean:

The Golden Mean is to seek balance in life by avoiding extremes and finding moderation in all things.


Behavioural Activation:

A technique that involves encouraging individuals to engage in positive activities to improve mood and well-being, for example if there is a correlation between dancing and feeling good about yourself, then go to the dance you shall!

Behavioural Momentum:

Behavioural momentum involves reinforcing a series of easy, positive behaviours before setting a challenge, thus increasing the likelihood of success. Therapists may use behavioural momentum to establish a pattern of cooperation and build rapport before addressing more difficult therapeutic goals.

Habits as Systems, Not Goals:

Viewing habits as systems or processes rather than focusing solely on end goals. Shifting the mindset to prioritise the daily process of building habits promotes consistency and ensures that progress is sustained over the long term.

The Power of Tiny Changes:

Small, consistent habits are impactful in achieving significant long-term results in behaviour. By focusing on small, manageable changes, it is possible to create powerful habits that accumulate over time, leading to substantial improvements.

Habit Loop - Cue, Routine, Reward:

The habit loop consists of a cue that triggers a routine, followed by a reward, reinforcing the habit. Understanding and manipulating this loop helps individuals identify and reshape habits, making positive behaviors more automatic.

Identity-Based Habits:

Forming habits is not just about what you do but also about who you believe you are. By adopting an identity aligned with desired habits, individuals create a powerful internal motivation that supports the development of positive behaviours.

Habit Stacking:

Habit stacking involves integrating new habits into established routines by linking them to existing behaviours. This technique simplifies habit formation by leveraging existing habits, making it easier to incorporate new, desired behaviours into daily life.

The Two-Minute Rule:

This is the concept that any habit can be started by taking a small, initial step that takes less than two minutes. Breaking down habits into two-minute tasks makes them more achievable, overcoming the initial resistance to starting a new behavior.

Plateau of Latent Potential:

The concept that habits often show minimal visible results initially but accumulate potential beneath the surface until they reach a tipping point. Understanding the plateau of latent potential encourages persistence, as habits may not yield immediate results but can lead to significant progress over time.

Habit Tracking:

Tracking habits can generate awareness and accountability. Keeping a record of habit progress helps individuals stay committed, identify patterns, and make necessary adjustments to achieve long-term success.

Reframing Setbacks:

Viewing setbacks not as failures but as opportunities to learn and adjust. Embracing setbacks as part of the learning process reduces discouragement and provides valuable insights for refining habits and overcoming challenges.

The Goldilocks Rule:

The concept that habits are most effective when they are challenging enough to be engaging but not so difficult as to be overwhelming. Striking the right balance in difficulty ensures that habits remain interesting and achievable, promoting sustained commitment.

Crisis Moments and Identity:

People often change habits during moments of crisis, emphasising the role of identity in such transformations. Recognising the potential for positive change during challenging times and aligning actions with a desired identity can lead to lasting habit shifts.

Social Norms and Identity:

Habits are influenced by social norms and how identity plays a crucial role in adhering to or challenging these norms. Aligning personal habits with a chosen identity and social norms can create a supportive environment for positive behavioral changes.

The Law of Least Effort:

The principle that habits are more likely to be adopted if they require minimal effort. Simplifying habits and reducing barriers to entry increases the likelihood of consistent adoption, making it easier to integrate new behaviors into daily life.

Continuous Improvement:

It is important to focus on continuous improvement rather than perfection when building habits. Embracing the idea of gradual progress and constant refinement helps individuals stay motivated and resilient on the journey of habit formation.

The Pareto Principle

The Pareto Principle, known as the 80:20 rule, states that roughly 80% of effects come from 20% of causes, and it is commonly applied in various contexts, emphasising the idea that a significant portion of outcomes or results often stems from a relatively small portion of inputs or efforts. In therapeutic contexts, the 80:20 rule suggests that focusing on identifying and addressing the critical 20% of issues or challenges for a client can often yield about 80% of the positive therapeutic impact, emphasising efficient and targeted interventions.

Pomodoro Technique: 

Breaking tasks into focused, timed intervals (typically 25 minutes) followed by short breaks can enhance productivity and reduce the urge to procrastinate.

Eisenhower Matrix: 

Prioritising tasks based on urgency and importance helps individuals focus on what truly matters and avoid procrastinating on critical activities.

Two-Minute Rule: 

If a task takes less than two minutes to complete, do it immediately, preventing the accumulation of small tasks that can contribute to procrastination.

Implementation Intentions: 

Clearly specifying when and where a task will be performed increases the likelihood of follow-through, reducing procrastination.

Eat That Frog!: 

Prioritising and tackling the most challenging task first thing in the morning can build momentum and prevent procrastination from derailing productivity.

Reward System:

Creating a system of rewards for completing tasks can provide positive reinforcement and motivation to overcome procrastination.

Deadline Setting: 

Establishing realistic deadlines for tasks creates a sense of urgency and minimises the tendency to postpone activities.

Accountability Partners: 

Sharing goals and progress with a trusted individual fosters accountability, making it more difficult to procrastinate without consequences.


Imagining the positive outcomes of completing a task can enhance motivation and reduce the inclination to procrastinate.


Breaking larger tasks into smaller, more manageable parts makes the overall goal seem less overwhelming, reducing the likelihood of procrastination.


Shaping involves reinforcing successive approximations of a target habits or behaviour, gradually leading to the desired behaviour. Therapists use shaping to guide clients towards complex or unfamiliar behaviors, reinforcing small steps toward the ultimate goal.

Premack Principle:

The Premack Principle asserts that a high-probability behaviour can be used to reinforce a low-probability behaviour. Access to preferred activities or behaviours can be made contingent on engaging in less preferred, but necessary, behaviours. 

Habit Reversal Training:

Habit reversal training addresses unwanted habits or repetitive behaviors by teaching clients to replace them with more adaptive alternatives. It may sometimes be used for conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder or tic disorders to interrupt and redirect problematic behaviors.

Operant Conditioning:

Operant conditioning focuses on how voluntary behaviours are strengthened or weakened based on their consequences. Operant conditioning principles may be used to reinforce positive behaviours and extinguish or reduce undesired behaviours.

Classical Conditioning:

Classical conditioning explores the association between stimuli and responses, often leading to the transfer of emotional reactions from one stimulus to another. In therapy, clients may address conditioned emotional responses by reassociating stimuli with more positive or neutral reactions.

Systematic Desensitisation:

This technique involves gradually exposing individuals to anxiety-provoking stimuli while simultaneously engaging in relaxation, aiming to reduce anxiety. Used in treating phobias and anxiety disorders, systematic desensitisation helps clients develop more adaptive responses to feared situations.

Token Economy:

Token economies use tokens as symbolic reinforcements for desired behaviors, which can be exchanged for rewards. Applied in group or institutional settings, token economies encourage positive behaviours by providing tangible rewards.


Modelling involves observing and imitating the behaviour of others to learn new skills or modify existing ones. Therapists may use modelling to demonstrate desired behaviors or coping strategies for clients to emulate.


Biofeedback involves providing individuals with real-time information about physiological processes, allowing them to gain control over these processes. In therapy, biofeedback is used to address conditions like anxiety and stress by teaching clients to regulate physiological responses.

Contingency Management:

Contingency management involves manipulating environmental contingencies to shape behaviour, focusing on the relationship between actions and consequences. Therapists apply contingency management strategies to encourage positive changes in behaviour by linking them to favourable outcomes.

Response Cost:

Response cost involves the removal of a positive reinforcer when an undesirable behaviour occurs. Therapists use response costs to discourage and reduce unwanted behaviors by associating them with the loss of a valued reward.

Aversive Conditioning:

Aversive conditioning pairs undesirable behaviours with unpleasant stimuli to reduce the likelihood of those behaviours occurring. Therapists may use aversive conditioning to discourage harmful habits or addictive behaviors by associating them with negative consequences.

Behavioural Contracts:

Behavioural contracts outline specific behaviors, consequences, and rewards agreed upon by the client and therapist to achieve therapeutic goals. Behavioral contracts enhance commitment and accountability, helping clients work towards positive behavioural changes.


Time-out involves removing a person from a situation reinforcing undesired behavior, providing a brief break to facilitate reflection. In therapy, time-out can be applied to manage aggression or disruptive behavior by allowing individuals to regroup and gain self-control. During a time-out empathy and compassion is required from the person instigating the time-out or someone else.

Social Skills Training:

Social skills training focuses on teaching individuals effective interpersonal skills, including communication, assertiveness, and conflict resolution. Therapists utilise social skills training to enhance clients' ability to navigate social situations and build positive relationships.

Behavioural Rehearsal:

Behavioral rehearsal involves practicing new, adaptive behaviors in a therapeutic setting before applying them in real-life situations. Therapists use behavioural rehearsal to build confidence and competence in clients, preparing them for successful implementation of new skills.

Exposure Therapy:

A technique that involves gradually and safely exposing yourself to feared or avoided situations to reduce anxiety or distress. For example, it's different for everyone, but it may start with learning some grounding techniques and then drawing or looking at pictures in one session, and eventually watching videos, onwards toward visualisations, visits or experiences.

Cue Exposure:

Cue exposure exposes individuals to cues or triggers associated with maladaptive behaviors, helping them develop healthier responses. Used in addiction treatment, cue exposure therapy assists clients in managing cravings and avoiding relapse by confronting and modifying responses to triggers.


Attachment as an Innate Drive:

Attachment is considered a fundamental, biologically rooted drive that promotes the formation of emotional bonds between infants and caregivers. This drive is essential for the survival and well-being of the child.

Attachment in Adult Relationships:

Attachment experiences in early life have a lasting impact on individuals' ability to form and maintain relationships throughout adulthood. Secure attachment is associated with positive relationship outcomes, while insecure attachment may contribute to difficulties in forming and sustaining relationships.

Critical Period for Attachment Formation:

Attachment theory suggests that there is a critical period during which infants need to form secure attachments with their primary caregivers. This typically occurs during the first two years of life and has lasting effects on emotional and social development.

Secure Base:

The caregiver serves as a secure base from which the child can explore the world. Securely attached children feel confident to explore their environment, knowing they have a safe haven to return to when needed.

Attachment Behavioural System:

Attachment behaviours, such as crying, clinging, and proximity-seeking, are considered part of an innate behavioural system designed to ensure the child's proximity to the caregiver. These behaviours are activated in response to perceived threats or distress.

Attachment Patterns:

There are three primary attachment patterns: secure attachment, insecure-avoidant attachment, and insecure-ambivalent/preoccupied attachment. Later research expanded these categories to include disorganised attachment and preoccupied attachment.

Secure Attachment:

Securely attached individuals feel confident in their caregiver's availability and responsiveness. This attachment style is associated with positive social and emotional outcomes, as securely attached individuals tend to form healthier relationships throughout life.

Avoidant Attachment:

Avoidant individuals may downplay the importance of attachment relationships and exhibit independence. This insecure attachment style can result from caregivers who are consistently unresponsive to the child's needs.

Ambivalent Attachment:

Individuals with ambivalent/preoccupied attachment may have difficulty trusting their caregivers and may exhibit clingy and anxious behaviours. This attachment style can result from inconsistent caregiver responsiveness.

Disorganised Attachment:

Disorganised attachment is characterized by inconsistent and often frightening caregiving. Individuals with disorganised attachment may exhibit contradictory behaviours, such as approaching the caregiver while simultaneously avoiding eye contact.

Internal Working Models:

Attachment experiences contribute to the formation of internal working models, which are mental representations of the self, others, and relationships. These models influence expectations and behaviours in future relationships.

Intergenerational Transmission:

Attachment patterns are often passed down from one generation to the next. Caregivers' attachment styles influence their parenting behaviours, creating a cycle of attachment patterns within families.

Stages of Cognitive Development:

It is possible to identify four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Each stage represents a qualitative shift in thinking abilities.

Assimilation and Accommodation:

Assimilation involves fitting new information into existing mental schemas, while accommodation involves adjusting existing schemas to accommodate new information. This interplay promotes cognitive growth.

Object Permanence:

Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible. It develops during the sensorimotor stage and is a fundamental cognitive milestone.

Eight Psychosocial Stages:

It is possible to identify eight stages of psychosocial development, each associated with a unique psychosocial crisis. Successfully navigating these crises contributes to healthy personality development.

Trust vs. Mistrust: 

Babies learn whether the world is a safe and caring place by how their parents take care of them. If parents are loving, babies learn to trust; if not, they might feel unsure about the world.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 

Toddlers want to do things by themselves, like dressing or feeding. When parents encourage this independence, toddlers feel proud (autonomy); but if parents are too strict, toddlers might feel ashamed or unsure about doing things on their own.

Initiative vs. Guilt: 

Young children like trying new things and taking on challenges. If parents encourage this, kids feel confident (initiative); if parents are too critical, kids might feel guilty or anxious about trying new things.

Industry vs. Inferiority: 

In elementary school, kids learn new skills and try hard at school. When they succeed, they feel proud and capable (industry); if they struggle, they might feel inferior or not as good as others.

Identity vs. Role Confusion: 

Teens explore who they are, what they like, and what they believe in. If they figure this out, they feel confident in their identity; if not, they might feel confused or uncertain about themselves.

Intimacy vs. Isolation: 

Young adults build close relationships. If they succeed, they have meaningful connections; if they struggle, they might feel lonely or find it hard to make strong friendships.

Generativity vs. Stagnation: 

Adults in their middle years contribute to the world, like raising kids or helping others. If they feel they're making a difference, they feel fulfilled (generativity); if not, they might feel stuck or like they're not doing anything important.

Integrity vs. Despair: 

In old age, people look back on their lives. If they feel proud of what they've done and accept their mistakes, they have wisdom and a sense of fulfillment (integrity); if they regret their choices, they might feel sad or like they've wasted their life.

Stages of Moral Development:

We may identify three levels of moral development (pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional), each with two stages. Moral reasoning progresses through these stages, reflecting increasing complexity.

Heinz Dilemma:

The Heinz Dilemma is a hypothetical moral scenario used to assess individuals' moral reasoning. It involves a moral decision about stealing medicine to save a life, providing insight into one's moral principles.

Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD):

The ZPD is the range of tasks that a learner can perform with the help of a more knowledgeable person. Collaborative learning within the ZPD supports cognitive development.


Scaffolding is the support provided by a more knowledgeable person to help a learner achieve a task within their ZPD. As the learner develops, the level of support decreases.

Ecological Systems:

We may identify microsystems (individual's immediate environment), mesosystems (interactions between microsystems), exosystems (external systems indirectly influencing development), macrosystems (cultural values), and chronosystems (historical influences) as interconnected levels influencing development.

Bi-directional Influences:

Individuals both shape and are shaped by their environment. 

Observational Learning:

Individuals can learn new behaviors by observing others. This process is central to the acquisition of social and cognitive skills.

Archetypal Stages of Development

It's possible to see human development through the perspective of archetypal psychology, for example: The Innocent (infancy), The Explore (mid childhood), The Thespian (early adolescence), The Wander (late adolescence), Soul Apprentice (early adulthood), Artisan (mid adulthood), Master (late adulthood), and Sage  (full maturation). Identifying these archetypes in the world, films, media and imagery can be a useful way of self-reflection and identifying areas for growth.

The Innocent (Approx. 0-6 years):

This stage of being a witness to the world is a foundational experience of wonder and self-discovery and curiosity about the world, formed during early childhood. This stage brings a lifelong sense of openness to experience, which may need to be rediscovered in therapy in later life, if early childhood was distressing.

The Explorer (Approx. 6-12 years):

This stage of embracing the unknown involves exploring, identifying and pursuing personal goals, as children and preteens navigate their unique paths. If development was interrupted, then recovering this sense of personal identity and goals may be an important part of therapy.

The Thespian (Approx. 12-18 years):

This stage holds the creative fire of self-expression as a way to process emotions and experiences, particularly during adolescence, as the individual moves toward defining themselves and their roles in the world according to their goals and values.

The Wanderer (Approx. 18-25 years):

This stage provides a space for introspective exploration of inner resources, strengths and capacities to survive and thrive in the world and move toward their futures at a realistic pace. Fully manifested in this stage, the individual may experience being a lone wanderer, and feel they have a mountain to climb, on a sacred journey toward self-realisation.

The Soul Apprentice (Approx. 25-40 years):

The Soul Apprentice stage is the journey of commitment to a deeper sense of morality and meaningful service often with the guidance of mentors. This stage is significant for the process of individuation, and the strength of character that comes from letting go of false identities and living more earnestly according to inner truth.

The Artisan (Approx. 40-55 years):

The Artisan stage focuses on skill-building and empowerment, as individuals master techniques to enhance their lives. This is a time of alchemy, transformation and renewal.

The Master (Approx. 55-70 years):

The Master stage involves embodying wisdom, sovereignty and self-mastery, and fostering supportive and mentor-like relationships. It's also about the healing power of presence, and shining one's light in the world as a guide and role model.

The Sage (Approx. 70+ years):

The Sage stage encompasses ecological or spiritual consciousness, and a focus on defining a lasting legacy to community. At its fullness, it may be a time of co-creation with spirit, or the fulfillment of a deep sense of purpose.


Ecological Systems Theory:

The ecological systems theory is used to understand the influence of multiple systems (micro, meso, exo, macro, and chrono) on an individual's development. This holistic perspective is valuable in clinical work.


The microsystem is the immediate environment in which an individual lives, including family, school, peers, and community. 


The mesosystem involves the wider connections and interactions between elements of the microsystem, such as the relationship between family and school or between peers and community.


The exosystem includes environments that indirectly affect an individual, such as a parent's workplace or community services. Indirect influences from external systems can still have a substantial impact on development.


The macrosystem encompasses broader cultural values, laws, customs, and societal ideologies that influence development. Cultural and societal factors shape individuals' experiences and perspectives within their immediate environments.


The chronosystem involves the dimension of time and the impact of historical events on an individual's development. Changes over time, such as societal shifts or personal life events, can have long-lasting effects on development.

Bidirectional Influences:

Ecological Systems Theory acknowledges bidirectional influences, meaning that individuals both shape and are shaped by their environments. Individuals' actions and characteristics can influence the environments they are a part of, and these environments, in turn, influence individuals.

Proximal Processes:

Proximal processes are the regular, daily activities and interactions that contribute to an individual's development within their immediate environment. Positive and consistent proximal processes contribute to healthy development.

Human Agency:

Human agency refers to an individual's capacity to actively participate in and influence their own development. Empowering individuals to exercise agency supports their personal growth within various systems.


Ecological Systems Theory considers the role of resilience, emphasizing an individual's ability to adapt positively to challenges. Resilience can be nurtured through supportive relationships and a positive microsystem.

Cultural Sensitivity:

Cultural factors are integral to the macrosystem, influencing individuals' values, beliefs, and norms. Acknowledging and respecting cultural diversity is crucial for understanding and supporting development.

Transition Points:

Ecological Systems Theory recognizes that transition points, such as moving from one life stage to another, can be critical periods of development. Understanding and supporting individuals during transitional phases is important for facilitating positive development.

Eco-Anxiety and Eco-Grief:

Addresses eco-anxiety and eco-grief in therapeutic settings. Ecopsychology acknowledges the psychological impact of widespread nature disconnection and destruction to nature and the climate, providing a space for individuals to explore and process feelings of eco-anxiety, numbness, overwhelm and grief.

Place-Based Healing:

Healing within specific natural environments, valuing the unique qualities and energies of specific natural settings in supporting individuals' well-being.

Nature-Based Therapeutic Connection:

The healing connection between individuals and the natural world.

Nature Immersion:

Immersing yourself in nature can facilitate a sense of connectedness, awe, and restorative emotions.

Nature as Co-Therapist:

Views nature as a co-therapist in the healing process. Ecopsychology acknowledges the role of nature as an active participant in the therapy.


The instinctive affinity humans have for nature.

Nature Reflection:

Reflective practices in natural settings. Reflecting on thoughts and emotions while immersed in nature may promote inner and outer balance and connection.

Ecological Identity:

Explores the development of ecological identity. Ecopsychology considers the formation of an ecological identity, wherein individuals may witness themselves as interconnected with the web of life, which has an influence on one's sense of purpose and well-being.


Supports acts of ecological generosity and care; ecological stewardship can be a path to personal healing. There is a reciprocal relationship between caring for the natural world and individual well-being, which awakens a sense of purpose and ecological responsibility.

Nature-Based Rituals:

Incorporates nature-based rituals for psychological healing. Rituals and ceremonies grounded in natural settings can support individuals in processing emotions, transitions, and personal growth.

Rewilding the Self:

Advocates for the "rewilding" of the self through nature. It is possible to reconnect with essential, primal aspects of yourself in natural settings, experiencing yourself as an animal and a nature being. This promotes a sense of authenticity and vitality.

Ecological Dreamwork:

Exploring the symbolic and ecological dimensions of dreams, using them as a tool for self-discovery and understanding one's relationship with the natural world.

Therapeutic Gardens:

The design and use of therapeutic gardens as spaces that nurture mental health, providing opportunities for reflection, meditation, and sensory engagement.

Nature-Inspired Metaphor Exploration:

Encourages the exploration of nature-inspired metaphors in therapy to deepen self-reflection and convey psychological insights.

Seven Generations Principle:

Considering the impact of decisions on the well-being of the next seven generations, fostering sustainability and long-term thinking.

Nature-Informed Mindfulness:

Contemplative practices that draw inspiration from natural patterns and energies.

Therapeutic Eco-Art:

Eco-art is a form of expression that combines creativity with ecological awareness, offering a unique avenue to explore and communicate your experiences. Therapy may support you to express your ecological experiences through poetry, art, or other creative mediums.

Eco-Informed Narrative Therapy:

Integrates ecological themes into narrative therapy. Ecopsychology explores personal narratives with a focus on ecological elements, recognising the significance of having an "Earth Story" in shaping identity and well-being.

Seasons of Life Metaphor:

Draws on the cyclical patterns of nature to explore the metaphor of seasons, aiding individuals in understanding and navigating various life transitions.

Eco-Therapeutic Adventure:

Embarks on eco-therapeutic adventures for personal growth. Nature-based adventures or expeditions that challenge individuals to develop self awareness and deepen connection to the natural world.

Wilderness Vision Quests:

Extended periods of solitude in nature to provide individuals with transformative experiences and deepen their connection to the natural world.

Shinrin-Yoku Practice:

Shinrin-Yoku is the practice of forest bathing. This involves immersing yourself in a forest, engaging your senses mindfully for several hours.

Mindful Nature Observation:

Focused observation of the natural environment, noticing details such as the colors of leaves, the sound of rustling leaves, and the scent of the forest.

Nature Absorption:

Absorption in the sights and sounds of nature and letting go of distractions; fully absorbing the sensory experiences offered by the forest, allowing a sense of peace and connection to emerge.

Kinh Hanh:

Kinh Hanh is slow and contemplative walking. Gentle walking, at a slow pace, in nature can allow you to savour the experience and connect more intimately with the ecosystem.

Tree Connection:

Connecting with trees physically, such as through touching, leaning against, or simply sitting near them, promoting a sense of rootedness and stability.

Nature Tea Ceremony:

The practice of brewing and enjoying tea made from local plants, adding a ceremonial aspect that deepens the sensory experience outdoors in nature.

Digital Detox in Nature:

To support your wellbeing, you may be encouraged to disconnect from electronic devices to fully immerse themselves in the natural environment and experience the benefits of unplugging.

Emotional Permaculture:

In therapy, applying emotional and social permaculture involves cultivating resilience by observing and adapting to emotional patterns, utilising diverse therapeutic methods, and creating supportive relationships, akin to permaculture's principles of mindfulness, diversity, and resource efficiency.


Existential Freedom:

Central to existential thought is the concept of freedom—the idea that individuals have the power to make choices and shape their own destinies. 


Emphasises living authentically by making choices aligned with one's values and beliefs. 

Existential Anxiety:

Acknowledges the existential anxiety that arises from the awareness of human freedom and the responsibility to make meaningful choices. 

Search for Meaning:

Addresses the fundamental human quest for meaning in existence. 


Personal responsibility for one's choices and actions. As an individual, you are empowered to take ownership of your life and recognise the impact of your decisions on their well-being.


A concept highlighting the awareness of mortality as a driving force in human existence. In therapy, you may confront the reality of death and its influence on your choices.

Relationship with Others:

Explores the significance of interpersonal relationships in the context of individual existence. Existential therapy considers how connections with others contribute to or hinder one's sense of meaning and fulfillment.

Embracing Ambiguity:

Encourages individuals to confront and embrace the inherent ambiguity of life. A necessary practice to navigate uncertainty and find meaning in a world that lacks absolute certainty.

Creation of Identity:

Recognises the ongoing process of creating and re-creating one's identity. Therapy may support you to explore how you construct your sense of self and understand the significance of personal agency in identity formation.


Acknowledges the existential concept of the absurd—the inherent tension between the human search for meaning and the apparent meaninglessness of the universe. Therapy may be a space where you grapple with the absurd.

Leap of Faith:

The idea of making a subjective, passionate commitment to one's beliefs despite the absence of objective certainty. It is an act of faith in human existence.

I-Thou Relationship:

An authentic, relational encounter with the Other. 


Addresses the existential theme of nihilism—the belief that life lacks inherent meaning or value. In therapy, parts of you may grapple with nihilistic perspectives as you seek purpose in a seemingly indifferent universe.

Time and Temporality:

Considering how you relate to past, present, and future. 


Explores the concept of "angst" or existential dread—a profound anxiety arising from the awareness of one's freedom and the uncertainty of existence. 

The Call to Authenticity:

Emphasises the existential call to live authentically and take responsibility for one's existence.Therapy may support you to explore how you will respond to the imperative to create a meaningful and authentic life.


Considering the concept of transcendence—the capacity of individuals to go beyond immediate circumstances and limitations. Therapy may help you to explore how you can transcend challenges and create meaning in the face of adversity.

The Will to Meaning:

Explores the existential concept of the "will to meaning"—the innate human drive to find purpose and significance in life. 

Silence and Solitude:

Acknowledges the significance of silence and solitude in the human experience. It is possible to encounter the profound aspects of existence through moments of contemplative silence.

The Hero's Journey:

An individual's quest for personal growth, and meaning. The Hero's Journey comprises stages such as the Call to Adventure, Crossing the Threshold, Trials and Challenges, Meeting Mentors or Allies, Confronting the Abyss, Resurrection, and returning with newfound wisdom or gifts, illustrating a cyclical process of self-discovery and transformation.

Poetics of Existence:

Considers the poetics of existence—the expressive and creative aspects of living a meaningful life.


Person-Centered Theory:

Upholding your unique experience and insights as integral to the therapy. The focus is on creating the right environment for your personal growth to happen unimpeded, and with appropriate support. 

Phenomenological Exploration:

Involves the exploration of your subjective experiences as they unfold in the present moment. Therapy values the richness of your lived experience for personal understanding.

Psychological Contact:

Describes the quality of the relationship between you and your therapist; a genuine connection is needed to facilitate healing. If the therapist is hiding something from the client, or the client is hiding something from the therapist, then this means that there may be an impediment to the psychological contact, and  the progress of the therapy will be affected.

Unconditional Positive Regard:

Involves your therapist accepting and supporting you without judgment or conditions. This facilitates open expression and meaningful self-exploration.


Reflects your therapist's ability to understand your feelings. Through empathy, your therapist connects with your experiences, enhancing the therapeutic relationship.

Relational Depth: 

A concept that goes beyond empathic understanding, focusing on the psychological contact, depth of the therapeutic relationship, and the emotional connection between therapist and client.


Congruence is a transparency about meaningful thoughts and feelings, which helps to build trust in relationships. It is about being genuine, contactful and taking measured risks in a relationship, as opposed to being masked, avoidant or withholding where openness may be constructive.

Organismic Valuing Process: 

The internal guide individuals possess for determining what is conducive to their growth and well-being.

Fully Functioning Person: 

An individual who is open to experience, lives in the present, and is in touch with their feelings, embodying self-actualisation.

Self-Actualising Tendency:

Represents the inherent tendency in each person to fulfill their unique potential and achieve personal growth i.e. self-actualisation; living according to your true values, really being you, not who you think others want you to be.

Formative Tendency:

We tend to become more sophisticated as human beings in the way that we grow and evolve, rather than simpler. We become fuller versions of ourselves rather than diminished as we make changes. This is called the formative tendency.

Conditions of Worth:

External expectations and judgments that may be internalised from others, such as parents, teachers, work, the government, religion, impacting self-concept and authenticity. 


Self-concept refers to the collection of beliefs and perceptions that individuals hold about themselves, encompassing their thoughts, feelings, abilities, values, and overall identity. It is the subjective understanding one has of oneself, which may be shaped by personal experiences, social interactions, and cultural influences and conditions of worth. The self-concept is dynamic and can change and become more accurate over time. 

Process Over Content:

Focus on the process of the therapeutic relationship rather than specific content, emphasising the importance of the experience in the present moment.


Encourages you to delve into your thoughts, emotions, and experiences during therapy. The goal is to enhance self-awareness and facilitate personal growth.

Non-Directive Approach:

Characterises therapy that trusts in your right to be fully self-governing as a client and as a human being. You may be offered suggestions and options in the therapy, but you will not be told what to do.

Reflective Listening:

Describes the therapist's practice of mirroring and summarising your thoughts and feelings. This technique fosters understanding and helps you explore your experiences more deeply.

Therapeutic Alliance:

Refers to the collaborative and trusting relationship between you and your therapist.


Focuses on enhancing your sense of control and autonomy in the therapeutic process, so you can actively engage in self-exploration and decision-making.

Respecting Inner Resources:

Capacity to find solutions and insights is within you; therapy supports you to build trust in your inner resources for personal growth.

Emotional Expression:

Encourages the open expression of emotions during therapy. Therapy provides an empathic space for you to share and explore a wide range of emotions.

Positive Psychology:

Emphasising strengths, positive emotions, and personal fulfillment. Therapy may explore your positive qualities to enhance well-being.

Therapeutic Unveiling:

Describes the gradual revelation of your true self in therapy. Therapy aims to create an environment where you feel safe to unveil and explore your authentic identity.

Existential Exploration:

Involves contemplating your existence, purpose, and values. Therapy may help you explore the deeper meaning of your life.

Integrative Healing:

The integration of separate parts or fragmented aspects of yourself; working with different parts of the personality supports a cohesive and balanced sense of self through integrative healing.

Personal Agency:

Focuses on the ability to make choices and take action in life i.e. the dignity of being a self-governing person able to freely make choices according to your true values, rather than according to the expectations of others whose values may not be in alignment with your own.

Mindful Awareness:

Involves being fully present and aware of your thoughts and feelings without judgment. Therapy values mindful awareness as a means of fostering self-exploration.

Narrative Integration:

Encompasses the weaving together of your life narrative, so you can integrate the various chapters of your life story for deeper understanding.

Narrative Reconstruction:

Involves reexamining and reconstructing your life narrative. Therapy engages in narrative reconstruction with empathy, fostering a more empowering and healing life story.

Genuine Encounter:

Emphasise authentic and meaningful interactions between you and your therapist. Genuine encounters as foundational to the therapeutic relationship.

Unstructured Exploration:

Involves allowing the therapy process to unfold without rigid frameworks or predetermined goals. 

Inner Conflict Resolution:

Addresses internal conflicts and contradictions within yourself i.e. supporting the resolution of inner conflicts to promote inner harmony.

Flexibility in Expression:

Encourages diverse ways of expressing yourself in therapy and enhancing your communication.

Collaborative Goal Setting:

Involves jointly establishing therapeutic goals between you and your therapist, to ensure your aspirations are honoured.

Trust in Process:

Cultivates trust in the unfolding therapeutic process i.e. trusting the natural progression of therapy to facilitate meaningful insights and growth.

Reflective Silence:

Incorporates intentional moments of silence during therapy. Therapy utilises reflective silence to allow you time for introspection and processing.

Hierarchy of Needs:

The Hierarchy of Needs arranges human needs in a pyramid, starting with basic physiological needs at the base and progressing through safety, love and belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation at the top. Addressing and understanding the client's current level within the hierarchy helps tailor interventions to meet immediate needs before exploring higher-order aspects such as self-actualisation.


Self-actualisation is the realisation and fulfillment of one's talents, potential, and capabilities, representing the pinnacle of psychological development. This is possible through the exploration and pursuit of passions and values internally and externally, and in day-to-day living.


Metaneeds encompass the desire for unity, justice, beauty, and truth that emerges once basic needs are met. Addressing metaneeds in therapy involves exploring existential and spiritual dimensions, contributing to a more holistic understanding of well-being.

Peak Experiences:

Peak experiences are moments of profound joy, creativity, and fulfillment that contribute to a sense of purpose and transcendence.

Hierarchy of Values:

Individuals organise their values hierarchically, with basic needs taking precedence before higher-order values. Exploring and aligning with your value hierarchy can guide goal-setting and decision-making, contributing to a more fulfilling life.



A contemplative practice emphasising present-moment awareness and compassion for oneself and others.


Recognising that all things are subject to change, aiding in acceptance and reducing attachment to fleeting experiences.

Wise Mind:

Wise Mind combines logical thinking and emotional intuition, to make balanced and informed decisions in alignment with one's values.

Wheel of Awareness:

The Wheel of Awareness is both a visual metaphor and a practice, which includes focusing attention sequentially on the five senses, the sixth sense (mental activities), and the seventh sense (interconnectedness and compassion), generating mindfulness of one's inner and outer experiences.


The ability to perceive and understand one's own mind and the minds of others. Mindsight is the product of developing insight, empathy, and emotional intelligence.


The process of bringing different parts of the brain and mind into harmony and coherence. Daniel Siegel emphasizes integration for optimal mental health and well-being.


Cultivating a state of being fully engaged and attentive to the present moment. Presence is a fundamental aspect of mindfulness practice.


The brain's capacity to reorganise and adapt by forming new neural connections. Mindfulness practices can positively impact the brain's neuroplasticity.

Window of Tolerance:

The optimal state of arousal where an individual can effectively cope with stress and engage in problem-solving. The window of tolerance is a concept for understanding and managing emotional states.

The Hand Model of the Brain:

A simple model of the brain's structure and functions using the hand as a representation. The hand model illustrates the integration of the brain's different regions and the importance of emotional regulation.

COAL - Curiosity, Openness, Acceptance, Love:

A set of qualities that foster a compassionate and mindful approach to experiences. COAL is a framework for cultivating a positive and receptive mindset.


Taking intentional moments for self-reflection and internal awareness. Time-in is a practice for self-regulation and emotional well-being.

SIFT - Sensations, Images, Feelings, Thoughts:

A mindfulness practice for exploring and processing experiences by attending to sensations, images, feelings, and thoughts. SIFT is a tool for self-awareness and emotional regulation.

COIN - Connection, Optimism, Insight, Novelty:

A set of qualities that support mental well-being and integration. The COIN framework highlights the importance of connection, optimism, insight, and novelty in promoting a healthy mind.

The Handful of Time:

A concept emphasising the present moment as a limited and precious resource. The appreciation of the "handful of time" can foster mindfulness and a sense of urgency in living fully.

The Plane of Possibility:

A metaphorical space where one can explore creative and open-minded possibilities. The plane of possibility encourages a mindset of exploration and innovation.

Mindful Breathing:

Focuses on conscious and intentional awareness of the breath to anchor oneself in the present moment. Mindfulness often starts with mindful breathing.

Walking Meditation:

A practice of moving with full awareness, often done slowly and deliberately. Walking meditation is a way to cultivate mindfulness in motion.


The concept that everything is interconnected and interdependent. Mindfulness incorporates interbeing to foster a sense of interconnectedness with all life.

Engaged Mindfulness:

Extends mindfulness beyond personal practice to actively engage with and alleviate the suffering of the world. Engaged mindfulness is concerned with social and environmental transformation.

Five Mindfulness Trainings:

Ethical guidelines offering principles for mindful living. The trainings encompass aspects like non-violence, generosity, and mindful consumption.

Deep Listening:

The practice of fully attending to another person with empathy and without judgment. Deep listening is a way to cultivate understanding and connection.

Loving-Kindness Meditation:

A meditation practice that involves sparking and growing feelings of love and compassion towards oneself and others. 

Mindful Eating:

The practice of eating with full awareness, savouring each bite and appreciating the nourishment. Mindful eating is a way to change habitual behaviour and thought patterns, and connect with the present moment.

Bell of Mindfulness:

The sound of a bell used as a reminder to pause, breathe, and return to the present moment. The bell of mindfulness may be invited to centre oneself throughout the day.

The Five Aggregates:

Components of human experience: form, feeling, perception, mental formations, and consciousness. 

RAIN Meditation:

An acronym representing Recognize, Allow, Investigate, and Nurture. RAIN meditation is a mindfulness tool for approaching difficult emotions with compassion and understanding.

Radical Acceptance:

Embracing and accepting oneself and one's life without judgment. 

The Sacred Pause:

Taking intentional moments to pause, breathe, and reconnect with the present moment. The sacred pause is a practice to break automatic reactions and generate mindfulness.

The Trance of Unworthiness:

In therapy, it may be necessary to recognise and release a limiting belief of unworthiness that hinders personal growth and happiness. We can address the trance of unworthiness through mindfulness and self-compassion.

True Refuge:

The concept of finding refuge within oneself through mindfulness and compassion. The idea of true refuge may be explored as a source of inner strength and resilience.

Trusting the Gold:

Recognising and trusting one's innate goodness and wisdom. The concept of trusting the gold is a way to reconnect with one's essential nature.

Fierce Self-Compassion:

Approaching oneself with a strong and unwavering sense of compassion, even in the face of challenges. Fierce self-compassion is a courageous and empowering practice.


Emphasises the recognition that the boundaries between self and other, subject and object, are illusory. Non-duality is a perspective that may be realised through mindfulness practices.

The Illusion of the Self:

Argues that the sense of a fixed and separate self is an illusion. The concept of the self is a construct that can be deconstructed through mindfulness and introspection.

Attention and Awareness:

Distinguishes between attention (focused awareness on a specific object) and awareness (the background field of consciousness).

Pursuit of Pleasure:

The pursuit of pleasure is a practise of simple living and the enjoyment of life's modest pleasures, emphasising contentment over excess.

No Desire:

No desire is a practice of letting go of excessive desires, reducing attachment, and finding contentment in the present moment.

Wu Wei:

The principle of Wu Wei or "Non Action" is a state of effortless action, allowing thoughts and emotions to flow without resistance, reducing stress and promoting inner harmony.

Yin and Yang Balance:

Developing a balance between Yin (calmness) and Yang (activity) aspects of life, promotes equilibrium in mental health through a blend of relaxation and engagement.


Qi or life energy is cultivated through mindfulness practice, promoting emotional balance and vitality.


Simplicity means decluttering the mind, simplifying goals, and focusing on essential aspects of personal development for clarity and peace of mind.


Naturalness means to accept and align with your true self, which is possible through self-compassion and living mindfully according to your values.


Xin is an attitude of trust in the unfolding of life, which promotes resilience in the face of uncertainties.


The Dao means "The Way" i.e. the way of natural order; by embracing change and adapting to life's flow it's possible to see the bigger picture of life and find meaning.



Analytical psychology explores the deep layers of the psyche, emphasising the integration of the conscious and unconscious aspects for personal development.


The ego is the conscious, rational aspect of the psyche that experiences a sense of identity and individuality.

Personal Unconscious

The personal unconscious refers to the reservoir of experiences, memories, and emotions unique to an individual that are not currently in the conscious awareness but can be brought to the surface through techniques such as dream analysis and introspection.

Collective Unconscious:

Represents the shared reservoir of universal experiences and symbols that all humans inherit. 


Universal symbols and themes that emerge from the collective unconscious. Archetypes are innate, organising principles that shape human experiences.


The process of becoming one's true and unique self by integrating unconscious elements into consciousness. Individuation is the lifelong journey toward self-realisation.


The social mask or facade individuals present to the outside world. The persona may be considered a necessary but sometimes limiting aspect of the psyche.


Represents the unconscious and repressed aspects of oneself, both negative and positive. The shadow is a source of hidden potential and areas for personal growth.


Archetypal representations of the feminine (anima) within men and the masculine (animus) within women. Examining the anima/animus may serve as a pathway to inner balance and wholeness.


A core pattern of emotions, memories, perceptions, and desires in the personal unconscious. Therapy may explore complexes to understand and integrate emotionally charged parts or aspects of the psyche.


The meaningful coincidence of events that are not causally related but share a symbolic connection. Synchronicity is a bridge between the inner and outer worlds.

Transcendent Function:

Describes the process of integrating opposites within the psyche to achieve a higher, more balanced state. The transcendent function, also known as symbolic function, is a mechanism for personal and psychological growth.

Active Imagination:

Involves a conscious and intentional engagement with the contents of the unconscious through creative visualisation. Active imagination is a method for exploring inner dynamics.

Complex Integration:

The process of bringing the contents of a complex into conscious awareness and harmonising its influence.

Persona Dissolution:

The temporary breaking down of the social mask or persona, allowing more authentic aspects of the self to emerge. Analytical psychology sees persona dissolution as a transformative experience.

Archetypal Images:

Universally recognised symbols and motifs that transcend cultural boundaries. Archetypal images have a role in shaping personal and collective experiences.

Ego-Self Axis:

Represents the relationship between the conscious ego and the deeper, organising Self. The ego-Self axis is a dynamic interplay crucial for individuation.


Circular symbols that often represent the integration of opposites and unity. Mandalas may be used creatively as tools for self-expression and exploring the balance of the psyche.

Archetypal Patterning:

The recurring themes and motifs found in various mythologies, religions, and cultural stories. Archetypal patterning helps us to understand universal aspects of the human psyche.

Personal Myth:

The unique narrative and symbolism that individuals create to give meaning to their lives. 

Persona Transformation:

The process of consciously adapting and evolving the social mask or persona. Persona transformation is a means of aligning the external presentation with authentic internal aspects.

Symbolic Death and Rebirth:

Represents the metaphorical death of old patterns and the emergence of new, transformed aspects of the self.  Symbolic death and rebirth is a transformative process.

Alchemical Integration:

Draws parallels between psychological processes and alchemical symbolism, where base elements transform into gold. For example the lead of our suffering, becoming transformed into philosophical gold i.e. that what we learn has more value. We are defined not by what happened to us, but by who we choose to become.


The quality of sacredness or the presence of a divine force within experiences. Numinosity is a way to understand the profound and transformative nature of certain encounters.

Archetypal Therapy:

A therapeutic approach influenced by analytical psychology, emphasizing the exploration and integration of archetypal elements for personal growth and healing.

Dream Analysis:

The exploration of dream content to gain insights into the unconscious. Dream analysis is a valuable tool for understanding symbolic representations.

Persona Authenticity:

The state of aligning the external presentation (persona) with genuine internal aspects. Analytical psychology encourages individuals to strive for persona authenticity for a more integrated and fulfilling life.

Spiritual Emergence:

Describes the process of profound spiritual awakening or transformation. Spiritual emergence is a multidimensional experience impacting the psyche.

Symbolic Confrontation:

Involves facing and engaging with symbolic representations in dreams, fantasies, or active imagination. 

Complex Dissociation:

The separation of emotional and psychological complexes from conscious awareness addressed through therapy to consciously heal and integrate the complexes.

Individuation Milestones:

Significant stages in the process of individuation, such as encounters with archetypal symbols or transformative experiences. Individuation milestones are markers of personal growth.

Archetypal Astrology:

Archetypal astrology explores the symbolic significance of celestial events for personal and collective understanding.

Psychological Typology:

The study of personality types and preferences and individual differences.

Ancestral Memory:

The concept that individuals may carry memories or imprints from their ancestors within the collective unconscious. 


The ability of the psyche to maintain balance and harmony through conscious and unconscious processes. Self-regulation is a key aspect of psychological well-being.

Persona Flexibility:

The capacity to adapt the social mask or persona to different situations while maintaining authenticity. Persona flexibility is necessary for effective social interactions.

Defense Mechanisms:

Protective strategies employed by the psyche to manage anxiety and protect the individual from distressing thoughts or emotions.

Free Association:

A technique where clients freely express thoughts and feelings without censorship. Psychodynamic counselling utilizes free association to uncover unconscious thoughts and emotions.

Developmental Stages:

Key phases in psychological and emotional growth from infancy to adulthood. Considering developmental stages helps us to understand the impact of early experiences.


The redirection of feelings from one person to another, often reflecting past relationships. Exploring transference may assist us to understand emotional patterns and facilitate therapeutic insight.


The therapist's emotional response to the client, influenced by the therapist's own experiences. Countertransference may be observed as a tool for understanding the therapeutic relationship.

Object Relations:

The study of how individuals relate to others, often rooted in early relationships with primary caregivers. Examining object relations can help us to understand interpersonal dynamics.


Unconscious attempts to avoid or block exploration of certain thoughts or emotions. Addressing resistance in a gentle and consensual way can allow for the uncovering of underlying issues and enhance therapeutic progress.

Exploring Childhood Experiences:

Acknowledging the impact of early experiences on your present self. Exploring your childhood with empathy can help you to understand patterns and foster healing.


The unconscious exclusion of distressing thoughts or memories from awareness. Exploring repression helps to bring hidden aspects into conscious awareness.

Ego Strength:

The ability of the ego to effectively manage and navigate the demands of reality. 

Ego States:

Transactional Analysis identifies three ego states—Parent, Adult, and Child—representing learned behaviors and responses from childhood that influence present interactions. Exploring and recognising these ego states can increase self-understanding and help to modify unhelpful patterns, for more effective communication and relationships.

Life Positions:

Life Positions refer to a person's basic stance or attitude towards oneself and others, categorized as "I'm OK, You're OK," "I'm OK, You're Not OK," "I'm Not OK, You're OK," or "I'm Not OK, You're Not OK." Understanding life positions assists in uncovering core beliefs and relational dynamics, enabling the adoption of more constructive perspectives.


Transactions represent the social interactions or communications between individuals, classified as complementary (healthy) or crossed (unhealthy). Analysing transactions helps identify communication patterns, facilitating improved understanding and more effective interpersonal dynamics.


In TA, "games" are repetitive patterns of behavior that individuals engage in unconsciously to fulfill psychological needs, often leading to negative outcomes. Therapy involves recognising and addressing these games, helping to stop unproductive cycles and develop healthier ways of relating.

Script Analysis:

Script refers to an individual's life plan or narrative, often developed in childhood, shaping their beliefs, choices, and behaviours. In therapy, exploring and rewriting negative or limiting life scripts empowers clients to create more fulfilling and intentional life paths.


Strokes are units of recognition or acknowledgment exchanged between individuals, categorized as positive (affirmative) or negative (critical). Understanding and modifying stroke patterns can enhance relationship dynamics, and support more positive interactions.


Rackets are habitual patterns of behavior and thought developed to avoid or manage uncomfortable feelings. Therapy involves uncovering and addressing rackets, helping clients explore and cope with underlying emotions more effectively.


Discounting involves minimising or negating positive feedback or experiences, contributing to low self-esteem. In therapy, addressing discounting helps clients acknowledge and internalise positive aspects of themselves and their experiences.

Autonomy and Intimacy:

There is a balance between autonomy (independence) and intimacy (connection) in healthy relationships. It is important to create and sustain a balance between these needs for satisfying and mutually respectful relationships.


Embodied Cognition:

Acknowledges embodied cognition—the idea that the body and brain are interconnected. The body-brain connection recognises that cognitive processes are influenced by bodily sensations, movements, and experiences.

Somatic Intelligence:

Explores somatic intelligence—the wisdom inherent in the body. The body-brain connection recognises that the body possesses its own intelligence, providing valuable information and guidance for emotional and cognitive processes.


Incorporates the concept of neuroception. The body-brain connection recognises the body's ability to unconsciously detect safety or threat cues, influencing emotional states and cognitive processing.

Vagal Tone:

Considers vagal tone in understanding the body-brain connection. Vagal tone, reflecting the activity of the vagus nerve, influences the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, impacting emotional and cognitive states.

Body Mapping:

Engages in body mapping to explore the body-brain connection. Body mapping involves the exploration of bodily sensations and their corresponding cognitive and emotional responses, fostering self-awareness.

Polyvagal Theory:

Polyvagal Theory explores the role of the autonomic nervous system in regulating social engagement, stress responses, and emotional well-being.

Mindful Movement:

Mindful movement practices, such as qi gung or tai chi engage the body in ways that positively influence cognitive processes and emotional well-being.

Embodied Emotion:

Explores the concept of embodied emotion. The body-brain connection recognizes that emotions are not solely experienced in the mind but are also felt in the body, influencing overall well-being.

Kinesthetic Learning:

Incorporates kinesthetic learning experiences. The body-brain connection recognises that engaging in physical activities enhances cognitive processes, supporting learning and memory.

Proprioceptive Awareness:

Focuses on proprioceptive awareness to enhance the body-brain connection. Proprioception, the awareness of the body's position in space, plays a crucial role in influencing cognitive and emotional states.

Emotional Regulation Through Movement:

Utilises movement for emotional regulation. The body-brain connection recognises that intentional movement can contribute to emotional regulation by influencing neurotransmitter release and neural connectivity.

Interoceptive Awareness:

Promotes interoceptive awareness for the body-brain connection. Interoception involves tuning into internal bodily sensations, influencing emotional and cognitive experiences and facilitating a deeper self-understanding.

Breath-Centered Cognitive Enhancement:

Conscious breathing can positively impact cognitive functions, stress reduction, and emotional well-being.

Neural Plasticity:

Considers the concept of neural plasticity. The brain can adapt and change through experiences, influencing emotional resilience and cognitive flexibility.

Heart-Brain Connection:

The dynamic communication between the heart and the brain. The heart's neurological connections and electromagnetic field influence cognitive functions, emotions, and overall well-being. 

Heart-Gut Connection:

In essence, the heart-gut connection emphasises the interplay between emotions and digestion, while the gut-brain connection underscores the communication between the gut and the central nervous system, influencing mood and cognitive functions.


A state of harmonious alignment between the heart, brain, and other bodily systems. Achieving physiological coherence enhances mental clarity, emotional balance, and physical well-being.

Heart Rate Variability (HRV):

Heart rate variability is an indicator of the adaptability and resilience of the autonomic nervous system. Managing and increasing HRV positively impacts stress resilience and emotional regulation.

The Quick Coherence Technique:

A practical method to shift into a coherent state; simply focus on the heart area, breathe slowly and deeply, and generate a feeling of warmth in the heart to attain quick coherence.

Appreciation and Gratitude:

It is possible to cultivate positive emotions by focusing on embodied feelings of appreciation and gratitude in the heart and chest area.

Intuitive Decision Making:

Supports the idea of using intuition and heart-based wisdom in decision-making. Tuning into the heart's intuitive signals can enhance decision-making processes.


The natural rhythm between activation and deactivation in the nervous system. 


Breaking down overwhelming experiences into smaller, more manageable components gradually to avoid retraumatization.

Felt Sense:

A nuanced awareness of bodily sensations and emotions. In therapy you may connect with the felt sense to access deeper layers of your experience and facilitate healing.

Orienting Response:

A natural instinct to assess safety in the environment. Orienting may be used consciously and therapeutically to help you to ground yourself in the present moment and gather a sense of safety.

Completion of Incomplete Survival Responses:

Addresses incomplete survival responses that may persist after a traumatic event. Therapy may assist the completion of these responses, allowing the body to discharge stored energy associated with the trauma.

Discharge of Energy:

Recognises the importance of discharging stored energy from the nervous system. Therapy may facilitate the release of pent-up energy related to traumatic experiences, promoting a sense of completion.

Grounding Techniques:

Techniques to anchor individuals in the present moment. Therapy explores methods such as focusing on the breath, feeling the support of the ground, and connecting with the environment to enhance grounding.

Slow Tracking:

Encourages slow tracking of bodily sensations and emotions. Somatic therapy involves a gentle exploration of sensations, allowing individuals to notice and integrate subtle shifts in the body's response.

Trauma Healing Without Re-Experiencing:

Supports trauma healing without the need for re-experiencing the full intensity of the traumatic event. A gentle and phased approach to processing trauma without overwhelming the individual.

Tracking Sensations in Real Time:

Encourages the real-time tracking of sensations as they arise. This involves staying present with the body's responses, allowing you to witness and integrate the ever-changing landscape of sensations.

Mindful Completion:

Advocates for mindful completion of interrupted actions related to trauma. Therapy may help you to revisit and complete aspects of the traumatic event, promoting a sense of resolution and closure.

Internal Resource Anchoring:

Internal resource anchoring is used to establish a sense of safety. You may identify internal resources—such as feelings of strength or support—and anchor yourself in these resources during challenging moments.

Nervous System Reset:

Advocates for a nervous system reset through gentle interventions. Therapy involves practices that may help you to reset your nervous system, promoting relaxation and reducing the overall impact of stress.

EMDR Integration:

Integrates elements of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). Therapy may incorporate rhythmic movements or bilateral stimulation to enhance the processing of traumatic memories.

Body Scan Meditation:

Incorporates body scan meditation to promote awareness and relaxation. Therapy may involve guided, mindful explorations of bodily sensations, facilitating a deeper connection with the body.

Pendulation Between Safety and Challenge:

Encourages pendulation between experiences of safety and challenging sensations. This involves navigating between moments of comfort and discomfort, supporting the gradual expansion of one's tolerance for different sensations.

Resource Installation:

Consciously cultivating and installing feelings of safety, strength, and support within your internal landscape.

Grounding Objects or Symbols:

Incorporates grounding objects or symbols to enhance safety. Using physical objects or symbolic representations to anchor in the present moment and create a sense of stability.

Trauma-Informed Yoga:

Therapy may involve gentle yoga movements and postures, facilitating mindfulness and the connection between body and breath to support trauma recovery.

Cognitive Integration:

Recognises the interplay between cognitive and somatic experiences. Thoughts and beliefs intersect with bodily sensations, and it is possible to integrate both aspects for a holistic healing process.

Witnessing Without Over-Identification:

Encourages witnessing without over-identification with traumatic sensations. This involves cultivating a compassionate observer perspective, allowing you to witness their bodily experiences without becoming overwhelmed.


Recognises the importance of co-regulation in healing. Therapeutic interventions may support individuals in co-regulating their nervous system through attuned and supportive relationships.

Empowerment Through Choice:

Emphasises empowerment through choice in the healing process. You may make choices about your therapeutic journey, promoting a sense of agency and control in the healing process.

Integration of Symbolic Imagery:

Integrates symbolic imagery to explore deeper meanings. Somatic therapy may involve exploring symbolic images that emerge during the healing process, providing insights into the individual's internal world and experiences.

Focusing Process:

A method of turning attention inward to explore bodily sensations and feelings. By attuning to the felt sensations of the body, it is possible to enter a gateway to connect with implicit emotional knowledge, and process underlying emotions.

Clearing a Space:

A method to create inner spaciousness for focused attention. This involves setting aside distractions to allow individuals to focus on the felt sense.

Resonating and Inviting Forward Movement:

Encourages the therapist to resonate with the client's experiences and invite forward movement toward expanded awareness and growth.

Inner Relationship:

Cultivates an inner relationship with different aspects of the self.  Therapy explores the dynamics between different internal parts, encouraging you to develop a compassionate and dialogical relationship with yourself.

Symbolic Expression:

Symbols may arise in the mind's eye, or through use of creative media, that represent and allow further exploration of the felt sense.

Noticing Shifts and Changes:

Encourages the awareness of subtle shifts and changes in the felt-sense, signaling progress and unfolding insights.

Focusing-Oriented Dreamwork:

Explores dreams through a Focusing lens. Focusing techniques may delve into the embodied aspects of dream content, facilitating deeper insights and connections.


Cultivates a sense of self-in-presence. This involves connecting with a grounded and centered sense of self, fostering resilience and clarity in the face of challenges.

Meridian Tapping (EFT - Emotional Freedom Techniques):

Utilises meridian tapping to release emotional distress. EFT involves tapping on specific meridian points to address and alleviate negative emotions, promoting emotional well-being.

The Body's Energy System:

Recognises the body's energy system as an integral aspect of well-being. Disruptions or imbalances in the body's energy flow can contribute to emotional and physical challenges.

Chakra Balancing:

Incorporates chakra balancing to harmonise energy centres. This explores the alignment and balance of the body's energy centres, aiming to enhance overall energy flow and promote emotional and physical equilibrium.

Thought Field Therapy (TFT):

Integrates Thought Field Therapy as a method to address emotional issues. TFT, involves tapping on specific acupressure points while focusing on a targeted issue to facilitate emotional healing.

Energy Psychology Techniques:

Encompasses a variety of techniques to address energy imbalances. Energy Psychology includes methods such as breathwork, visualisation, and affirmations to influence the body's energy system and promote emotional resilience.

Polarity Therapy:

Polarity Therapy principles involve working with the body's energy currents to create a state of balance and harmony.

Colour Therapy:

Integrates colour therapy to visually influence mood and energy. The use of specific colours may stimulate and balance the body's energy system, potentially impacting emotional states.

Biofield Therapies:

Encompasses biofield therapies to increase presence and resolve energy imbalances. Modalities such as Healing Touch focus on altering the body's energy field to support emotional and physical healing.

Intention Setting:

Collaboratively setting intentions for the therapy session, may align somatic work with well-being goals.

Listening Touch:

Utilises a listening touch approach during massage sessions by attuning to the subtle cues and responses of the body.

Organic Movement:

Flowing and intuitive movements that follow the body's natural rhythms, promoting a sense of fluidity and harmony.

Presence of Stillness:

Acknowledges the therapeutic presence of stillness. Moments of stillness during the therapy process can be profoundly therapeutic, allowing for integration and deepening self-awareness.

Craniosacral Rhythms:

Subtle pulsations of the craniosacral system can be used to synchronise breath and awareness of the felt-sense and improve self-regulation and embodied presence.

Bioelectric Field Awareness:

Acknowledging the subtle bioelectric field around the body, can support with the intention of promoting balance and vitality in this energetic aspect, and therapeutic exploration may identify areas of strength and weakness, and reveal needs. The bioelectric field can be discussed and visualised during boundary-setting exercises.

Inherent Health:

Recognises the inherent health within the individual. Every person has an innate capacity for health, and the therapy process is designed to support the expression of this inherent vitality.

Cellular Memory Release:

Explores the potential release of cellular memories. Tissues may hold memories and emotions, and consensual therapeutic touch may facilitate the gentle release of these stored experiences.

Bioenergetic Character Structure:

Explores character structures to understand emotional patterns. Bioenergetics therapy acknowledges the concept of character structures—patterns of muscular tension that may correspond to specific emotional and psychological traits.



A visual representation of family relationships and history, often in the form of a family tree. Genograms may be used to explore family patterns and intergenerational dynamics.

Power Dynamics:

The distribution and exercise of power within a system, influencing decision-making and relationships. Exploring power dynamics is a way to address issues of control and influence.


The tendency of a system to maintain stability and resist change. Systemic counselling considers homeostasis in understanding how families may resist or adapt to new patterns.


A visual representation of a person's social and environmental connections. Systemic counselling uses eco-maps to explore the broader systemic influences on an individual.

Maafa Philosophy:

Maafa philosophy addresses the historical and ongoing impact of the transatlantic slave trade on African identity and culture.

Mindful Curiosity:

Involves approaching your inner experiences with a gentle and inquisitive mindset. Mindful curiosity allows you to explore your thoughts and emotions without judgment.

Body-Centered Exploration:

Acknowledges the wisdom held in your body's responses and sensations, recognising the interconnectedness of physical and emotional experiences.

Embracing Vulnerability:

Encourages an open and accepting attitude toward vulnerability. Therapy creates a space for embracing vulnerability, allowing for authentic self-expression and growth.

Unveiling Coping Mechanisms:

Acknowledges the coping strategies developed in response to life's challenges. Therapy unveils these mechanisms, offering a compassionate lens to explore and transform them.

Internal Family Systems (IFS):

Involves understanding your inner world as a system of different sub-personalities or "parts." Internal Family Systems explores the dynamics and harmony within this internal family.


Focuses on your core self as the leader and harmonising force within your internal family. Self-leadership involves cultivating qualities like compassion and curiosity to guide the system.


Refers to distinct aspects of your personality or sub-personalities within the internal family. Parts have unique roles and emotions, each contributing to the overall system.


Represents the wounded or vulnerable parts that may be tucked away due to past traumas. It may be necessary to gently explore and heal these exiled parts to reintegrate them into the internal family.


Refers to protective parts that respond to threats by distracting or numbing. It may be important to explore these firefighters with compassion, understanding their role in managing distress.


Denotes parts that strive for control, order, and perfection. Connecting with these managerial parts, helps us to understand their protective function and work towards a balanced leadership approach.


Involves the process of harmonising and integrating all parts under the guidance of the core Self. Self-integration is a means of achieving inner balance and wholeness.

Blended Parts:

Represents parts that are entangled or fused with extreme emotions. It  is possible to unblend these parts, allowing for a clearer understanding and compassionate exploration.

Core Qualities:

Identifies innate qualities within the core Self, such as curiosity, compassion, and calmness. We can focus on accessing and embodying these core qualities for healing and self-guidance.


Describes the process of releasing burdens carried by exiles and transforming extreme roles of parts. Healing is often a process of unburdening, enabling a more balanced and integrated internal family.

Legacy Burdens:

Refers to the emotional and behavioural patterns and beliefs inherited from family or cultural influences. IFS explores legacy burdens with the goal of understanding and transforming these patterns.

Systemic Constellations:

Involves representing parts or family members spatially in therapy. While not exclusive to IFS, systemic constellations can be used to explore the dynamics within the internal family.

Externalising Issues:

Involves separating an issue from your identity and exploring it as a distinct part. Externalising issues may facilitate a more objective and compassionate understanding.


Describes the practice of observing and acknowledging your internal experience without judgment. 

Parts Harmony:

Represents the state where various parts work together cohesively under the leadership of the core Self. 

System Mapping:

Involves visually mapping out the relationships and roles of different parts within the internal family. It's possible to use system mapping to enhance understanding and facilitate therapeutic exploration.

External System:

Describes the interactions and dynamics between the internal family system and external relationships, recognising the influence of external systems on internal dynamics.

Inner Critic:

Refers to a part that may judge, criticise, or undermine other parts. It may be necessary to understand the role of the inner critic with compassion, understanding its protective intentions, before it can transform.


Involves providing the nurturing and supportive care that may have been lacking in early life i.e. reparenting to meet the needs of wounded or vulnerable parts.

Parts Harmony:

Represents the state where various parts work together cohesively under the leadership of the core Self. 

Protective Shields:

Describes mechanisms created by parts to shield the internal system from perceived threats. By exploring protective shields, we can work towards understanding and transforming them.

Emotional System:

Represents the interconnected web of emotions within the internal family. By acknowledging the complexity of the emotional system, we can begin to bring about harmony and understanding.

Accessing Self-Energy:

Involves tapping into the core Self's energy, characterised by qualities like calmness and compassion. Accessing self-energy brings stability and healing to the system.

Present-Moment Awareness:

Emphasises being aware of the present experience, including thoughts, emotions, and sensations. Focusing on the here-and-now, we are able to build, real, living connections and relationships with different parts in the internal family system.

Role Exploration:

Involves understanding and exploring the roles that different parts play within the dynamics of an internal family in order to facilitate healing and transformation.

Internal System Check-In:

Involves regularly assessing the current state of your internal family system. Therapy encourages internal system check-ins to promote ongoing self-awareness and balance.

Transformational Dialogue:

Represents the therapeutic conversations between the core Self and various parts. Transformational dialogue facilitates understanding and promotes healing transformations.

Flow of Self-Energy:

Describes the smooth and balanced flow of energy from the core Self to various parts. Cultivating a flow of self-energy allows for internal equilibrium.

Circular Questioning:

A technique that involves asking questions to understand the patterns and interactions within a system. Systemic counselling uses circular questioning to explore relationships and perspectives.

Systemic Family Constellations (SFC):

A therapeutic approach exploring family dynamics by representing family members spatially,  aiming to reveal hidden dynamics and facilitate healing within family systems.

Ancestral Loyalties:

Describes the deep connections individuals have to their family lineage. Exploring ancestral loyalties reveals hidden influences on present-day dynamics.

Family Orders:

Refers to the unspoken rules and hierarchies within a family system. Examining family orders may uncover hidden dynamics affecting relationships and well-being.

Reparative Movements:

Involves symbolic movements or interventions made during a constellation to restore balance and healing within the family system. It may be possible to use reparative movements to address unresolved issues.


Represents situations where individuals in a family system become enmeshed in each other's issues or fates. In such cases it may be necessary to work to untangle enmeshment for improved personal wellbeing and/or family dynamics.

Orders of Love:

Describes the natural laws that govern harmonious family systems. Understanding and respecting the orders of love contribute to resolving systemic issues and fostering well-being.

Systemic Resonance:

Involves the energetic connection and resonance between family members. Exploring systemic resonance may reveal hidden dynamics and promote healing within the family system.

Ancestral Healing:

Focuses on addressing unresolved issues or traumas within the ancestral lineage. We may turn to ancestral healing to bring about healing and balance to present-day family dynamics.

Unconscious Loyalties:

Refers to loyalties or entanglements that individuals may carry without conscious awareness. SFC brings unconscious loyalties to light for deeper exploration and resolution.

Systemic Dynamics:

Encompasses the intricate interactions and interdependencies within a family system. 

Systemic Field:

Represents the energetic field created by the interconnectedness of family members. The systemic field holds information that can be accessed to understand family dynamics.

Morphogenetic Fields:

Draws from the concept that information is transferred through non-material fields. Morphogenetic fields are carriers of family information, influencing behaviours and relationships.

Systemic Consciousness:

Refers to the collective awareness and consciousness within a family system. 

Intergenerational Transmission:

Involves the passing down of beliefs, behaviours, and traumas through generations. Looking deeply into intergenerational transmission may address inherited patterns affecting family dynamics.

Feedback Loops:

The continuous flow of information within a system, influencing its functioning.  During therapy we may explore feedback loops to understand how information shapes family interactions.


The invisible lines that define and separate individuals within a system. It is important to explore boundaries to understand the roles and interactions within a family or group.


Lines of Development:

Recognising that individuals can develop along different lines or dimensions, such as cognitive, emotional, moral, interpersonal and spiritual.

Spirituality as a Developmental Stage:

Considers spirituality as a distinct developmental stage. The transpersonal stage involves a deepening connection to spiritual insights, practices, and the recognition of a larger, interconnected reality.

Spectrum of Consciousness:

Views consciousness as existing on a spectrum that ranges from personal to transpersonal. Acknowledges the diversity of human experience and the potential for individuals to access transpersonal dimensions.

Levels of Development:

Developmental levels that individuals and societies progress through. These levels include archaic, magic, mythic, rational, pluralistic, and integral stages.

Narrative Therapy and Mythic Storytelling:

Incorporates narrative therapy and mythic storytelling to explore and reframe personal narratives. Recognising the power of storytelling in shaping one's understanding of the self and spiritual journey.

Personal and Transpersonal Self:

Distinguishes between the personal self (ego) and the transpersonal self (higher or spiritual self). Therapy aims to harmonise and align these aspects, to cultivate a sense of purpose and connection.


The different facets of the personality, each with its own characteristics, needs, and tendencies. 

The Egg Diagram:

A visual representation depicting the layers of the self, from the personal unconscious to the higher self. The egg diagram illustrates the journey toward self-realization and transpersonal integration.

The Superconscious:

Refers to the realm of higher consciousness and spiritual awareness beyond the personal and collective unconscious. 

Spiritual Emergency:

Acknowledges that intense spiritual experiences can lead to psychological challenges. 

Synthesis of Polarities:

The integration of opposites and polarities within the self, recognizing that conflicting elements can be synthesised to create a more harmonious and balanced personality.

The Core Unifying Principle:

A core unifying principle that connects all aspects of the self. This principle is seen as a guiding force that can be accessed through self-awareness and inner exploration.

The Field of Higher Self:

Describes the transcendent and interconnected dimension that goes beyond individual consciousness. Accessing the field of the higher self can lead to profound spiritual insights and understanding.

Personal Destiny:

The idea of a personal destiny, a unique path or purpose for each individual. Exploring and aligning with one's personal destiny is considered crucial for holistic development.

The Role of Will in Decision Making:

The will is key in making conscious and aligned choices. The will serves as a dynamic force that aligns with one's higher values and aspirations.

Healing the Inner Child:

The impact of early experiences has an effect on the formation of the personality. Inner child work involves healing and integrating aspects of the self that were wounded or neglected during childhood.


The process of detaching and becoming free from identified roles, beliefs, and aspects of the personality. 

The Ideal Model:

The highest and most authentic expression of the self. Aspirations to embody this ideal model guide the journey of self-discovery and growth.

Spiritual Awakening:

Involves a profound shift in consciousness leading to a deep sense of connection with a higher reality. Transpersonal psychology explores spiritual awakening as a transformative and growth-oriented experience.

Expanded States of Consciousness:

Refers to altered states of awareness beyond ordinary waking consciousness for example in meditation or psychedelic experiences.


The process of discovering and embodying one's true nature and potential. Self-realisation may be considered the central goal for personal development.

Unity Consciousness:

Involves a sense of interconnectedness and oneness with all of existence i.e. unity consciousness is a transformative experience transcending individual identity.

Mystical Experiences:

Involves direct encounters with a transcendent reality, often described as ineffable and deeply transformative. Transpersonal psychology examines mystical experiences for their impact on personal growth.

Archetypal Symbols:

Represents universal symbols and images that carry deep, often spiritual, meaning. 


Emphasising the interconnectedness between spiritual well-being and ecological awareness. Therapy may explore the spiritual dimensions of ecological consciousness and stewardship.


Ubuntu means interconnectedness, community, and the belief that one's humanity is intertwined with others.

Sankofa Wisdom:

The Sankofa principle, symbolised by a bird looking backward while moving forward, represents the importance of learning from the past to build a better future.

Cultivation of Virtues: 

Incorporating the exploration and cultivation of virtues, such as patience, kindness, and resilience, may be an integral aspect of psychospiritual development.


Positive mindsets may bring about positive changes, and reduce misfortune.


Letting go of attachment to specific outcomes, can cultivate a sense of trust and allowing life to unfold naturally.

Cause and Effect: 

Cause and Effect, also known as Karma, is the concept that one's actions have consequences; positive actions may lead to positive outcomes.


Recognising the interconnectedness of all things and the idea that we are all part of a greater whole.

Reflection and Projection: 

The external world can be viewed as a metaphor for, or a reflection of one's internal state. Recognising that the external world reflects internal states, encourages self-reflection and awareness of projections onto others.


The perspective that the universe is abundant and that through intentional cooperation, healthy boundaries and inclusive sharing, there are actually more than enough resources for everyone. This idea can be applied as a shift of focus from scarcity to abundance.

Intention and Desire: 

Clarifying one's intentions and desires and aligning actions with these intentions to manifest positive outcomes.


Acknowledging that resistance to certain situations or emotions can intensify them, encouraging acceptance and letting go. Understanding that resistance may not be the answer to a problem, we may choose an attitude of equanimity instead.


As above, so below; the idea that patterns in one's life reflect patterns in the larger universe.


This is the concept that we are each called to discover and live in alignment with a purpose to our lives, often in service of others.


Remembering that there are inherent paradoxes and complexities in life, can help us to foster the capacity to hold opposing truths and navigate ambiguity.


Embracing the idea of balance and harmony within oneself and with the surrounding environment, recognising the interconnectedness of all things.

Unity in Diversity: 

Appreciating the diversity of human experience and belief systems while recognising the underlying unity that connects all individuals.


Acknowledging the transient nature of all things, so we can foster resilience and adaptability in the face of life's changes.


Exploring the meaningful coincidences and interconnected events that may hold personal significance in one's life.


Aligning one's actions and choices with one's true self and values.


Cultivating trust in one's inner wisdom and intuitive insights as valuable sources of guidance.

Compassionate Action: 

Emphasising the importance of compassionate and altruistic actions as pathways to personal and collective well-being.


Understanding the principle of giving and receiving, as an aspect of our interconnectedness that thrives on mutual support and kindness.


The idea of personal and spiritual evolution acknowledges the potential for growth and transformation over time.


Exploring the concept that individuals attract energies and experiences that resonate with their own vibrational frequencies.


A mindset of non-attachment to outcomes and possessions promotes freedom from excessive desires and aversions.

Natural Order: 

Trusting in the inherent divine or natural order and purpose in the universe, even in the face of anomalies/misfortunes or uncertainty. When we accept that both chaos and order are seemingly present in the system of life, we can keep going forward toward natural order with a greater sense of certainty and harmony. Nothing is fixed, everything is in process, and the order of things becomes clear in time.

Gracious Acceptance: 

Cultivating an attitude of acceptance and gratitude for experiences, recognising the potential for healing and growth in every situation.


Prioritising self-love and self-care as essential foundations for overall well-being and positive relationships with others.